International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS
Mary-Anne Davies, Principal Investigator
University of Cape Town, South Africa
Southern Africa is where almost 30 of the approximately 40 million HIV-infected people in the world live, in an area estimated to have 2 of the global population. While an estimated 2 million men, women, and children are yet in urgent need of antiretroviral treatment in this region, close to 200,000 individuals are now believed by the World Health Organization to be receiving treatment. Answers are urgently needed to clinical and operational research questions regarding the most effective implementation and monitoring of wide-scale antiretroviral treatment delivery.
Research Design and Methods:
The OASIS Collaboration includes 17 clinics and clinical cohorts in 6 countries in the region, involving 35,070 HIV-1 infected adults and children. We will use innovative and state-of-the-art statistical approaches to analyze data from this observational cohort study, including techniques which account for the longitudinal and hierarchical structure of the data. An operational structure is proposed that emphasizes the long-term collaborative and capacity-building approach of the collaboration.
Malawi adopted the Option B+ strategy in 2011. Its success in reducing MTCT depends on coverage and timing of HIV testing. We assessed HIV status ascertainment and its predictors during pregnancy. HIV status ascertainment was 82.3% (95%-CI 80.2-85.9) in the pre-Option B+ period and 85.7% (95%-CI 83.4-88.0) in the Option B+ period. Higher HIV ascertainment was independently associated with higher age, attending ANC more than once, and registration in 2010.
BACKGROUND: Even among HIV-infected patients who fully suppress plasma HIV RNA replication on antiretroviral therapy, genetic (e.g. CCL3L1 copy number), viral (e.g. tropism) and environmental (e.g. chronic exposure to microbial antigens) factors influence CD4 recovery. These factors differ markedly around the world and therefore the expected CD4 recovery during HIV RNA suppression may differ globally.
BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness of routine viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on various factors that differ between settings and across time. Low-cost point-of-care (POC) tests for VL are in development and may make routine VL monitoring affordable in resource-limited settings. We developed a software tool to study the cost-effectiveness of switching to second-line ART with different monitoring strategies, and focused on POC-VL monitoring.
BACKGROUND: Viral load and CD4% are often not available in resource-limited settings for monitoring children's responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to construct normative curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following initiation of ART in children, and to assess the association between poor weight gain and subsequent responses to ART.
BACKGROUND: The CD4 cell count or percent (CD4%) at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is an important prognostic factor in children starting therapy and an important indicator of program performance. We describe trends and determinants of CD4 measures at cART initiation in children from low-, middle-, and high-income countries.