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Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Increased eligibility guidelines of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to greater routine viral load monitoring. However, in resource-constrained settings, the additional resources required by greater routine viral load monitoring may impair ability to comply with expanded eligibility guidelines for ART.

OBJECTIVE: We use a published...

Most studies that follow subjects over time are challenged by having some subjects who dropout. Double sampling is a design that selects and devotes resources to intensively pursue and find a subset of these dropouts, then uses data obtained from these to adjust naïve estimates, which are potentially biased by the dropout. Existing methods to estimate survival from double sampling assume a random sample. In...

OBJECTIVE: To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries.

METHODS: Patients aged 16 years or older starting cART in a clinic participating in a multicohort collaboration spanning 6 continents (International...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
In sub-Saharan Africa, a large proportion of HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are lost to follow-up, some of whom are dead. The objective of this study was to validate methods used to correct mortality estimates for loss-to-follow-up using a cohort with complete death ascertainment.

METHODS: Routinely collected data from...

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

METHODS: HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda.
METHODS:
Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Computer simulation models can project long-term patient outcomes and inform health policy. We internally validated and then calibrated a model of HIV disease in children before initiation of antiretroviral therapy to provide a framework against which to compare the impact of pediatric HIV treatment strategies.

METHODS:...

OBJECTIVES: In resource-constrained settings, tuberculosis (TB) is a common opportunistic infection and cause of death in HIV-infected persons. TB may be present at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but it is often under-diagnosed. We describe approaches to TB diagnosis and screening of TB in ART programs in low- and middle-income countries.
METHODS AND FINDINGS:

We...

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited.
METHODS: We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007-2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI....

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Delays and failures in initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among treatment eligible patients may compromise the effectiveness of HIV care in Africa. An accurate understanding, however, of the pace and completeness of ART initiation and mortality during the waiting period is obscured by frequent losses to follow-up.

METHODS...

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